Diabetes mellitus diet is one of the ways to control the disease to prevent the development of acute and chronic complications. The main task of therapeutic measures is to normalize metabolic processes in the body by optimizing blood sugar levels to the maximum allowable level.
The key to a patient's well-being is to follow a diet with limited carbohydrates and well-chosen medications.
If you do not start treatment on time, diabetes mellitus complicates the kidneys, nervous system, blood vessels, eyes and heart.
Etiology and pathogenesis
Today, 4% of the world's population suffers from this disease. According to the WHO, 8, 640 people die of diabetes worldwide every day, and 3 million people die every year. This figure is several times higher than the mortality rate from hepatitis and AIDS. According to the International Diabetes Federation, the number of carriers of the disease by 2014 is 285 million, and according to the forecast, by 2030. their number could reach 438 million.
Etiology of the disease:
- hereditary tendency;
- viral infections (influenza, tonsillitis) as a result of which the islet apparatus is damaged and latent diabetes occurs;
- mental / physical trauma;
- vascular, autoimmune diseases.
External factors contributing to the development of diabetes:
- long-term mental stress, stress, fear, apprehension;
- eating foods high in carbohydrates and saturated sugars;
- eat a lot in the long run.
Symptoms of diabetes in men and women:
- polyuria (increase in urine volume up to 8 liters per day);
- weight loss;
- hair loss;
- frequent urination;
- severe thirst;
- decreased libido, strength;
- itching of feet, palms, perineum;
- increased appetite;
- wounds do not heal well;
- decreased visual acuity;
- bad breath of acetone.
If you find symptoms of a disease, you should consult a doctor immediately, because the effectiveness of diabetes treatment directly depends on the speed of detection of the first symptoms of the disease, the outcome of the diagnosis and medication. Remember, the disease is easier to treat in the early stages.
Disease Classification and The Role of Nutrition
After drug treatment, the main role should be given to the patient's diet.
Diets depend on the stage of pancreatic depression, the mechanism of manifestation and the method of treatment.
Stages of the disease
- Type 1 diabetes. It is a severe autoimmune disease associated with impaired glucose metabolism. In this condition, the pancreas generally does not produce or produces very little insulin, which is needed to maintain the body's vital functions.
- Type 2 diabetes. Often, this form of the disease develops in sedentary people over 15% of the total weight.
- Gestational diabetes. This type of diabetes mellitus develops in 4% of women during pregnancy, mostly in the second trimester. Unlike the first two types of the disease, in most cases the child disappears immediately after birth, but sometimes the second type can turn into diabetes. . . .
Less common forms (variants) of diabetes mellitus occurring in 1% of the world's population are prediabetes, occult, neurogenic, renal, steroid, bronze, MODY.
Types of Diabetes Diet
Insulin injections, hypoglycemic drugs and physical activity are important in achieving positive dynamics in the treatment of the disease. However, according to some doctors (A. Bronstein, E. Malysheva, V. Kononov) proper diet plays a key role.
Types of Nutrition Programs
- A carbohydrate-free diet is a technique based on the consumption of complex carbohydrates from vegetables and fruits - the removal of foods with large amounts and simple carbohydrates from the menu.
- Protein diet for diabetes. This diet is based on the principle of minimizing carbohydrate and fat intake by increasing protein in the diet. The main focus of the methodology is to replace meat with lean fish, poultry and fermented dairy products.
- Low-carbohydrate diet, type 1. 2 is used to prepare menus for diabetics.
- buckwheat diet. Regular use of this product has a beneficial effect on the body: it lowers the level of "bad" cholesterol and saturates it with iron, rutin, calcium, magnesium, fiber, iodine, B vitamins. Buckwheat diet for diabetes helps to minimize the likelihood of macrovascular complications and ulcers.
- Diabetes prevention diet is designed to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic dysfunction.
With the onset of inflammation of the cardiovascular system and blood vessels, diet 10 is applied to diabetes 10. Its feature is to reduce the consumption of fluids, salt, fat, carbohydrates, because these substances overload the liver, kidneys and excite the nervous system.
Let's take a closer look at what diet is needed for diabetes mellitus, recipes of foods that are allowed to use during the diet.
When diabetes mellitus is detected, it is important to properly balance the intake of carbohydrates and glucose-lowering substances in the body. A universal parameter called the bread unit is used to calculate the caloric content of products. At the same time, 1 XE (10 - 13 g of pure carbohydrates) raises glucose to 2. 77 mmol / l and "requires" 1 to 4 units of insulin for assimilation. It is important to plan a diet in advance, as injections are given before meals.
The amount of carbohydrates in a meal should be 4-6 bread units. The frequency and timing of meals directly depends on the type of sugar-lowering drug.
Quantity corresponding to 1XE:
- sugar - 1 tablespoon. ;
- honey - 1 tablespoon. l. ;
- spaghetti - 1, 5 tablespoons. ;
- fruit juices - 150 ml;
- ice cream - 60 g;
- carbonated fresh water - 180 ml;
- bread (rye, white, black) - 25 g;
- pancakes or pancakes - 1 piece;
- dough - 25 g;
- melon - 300 q;
- porridge (oats, buckwheat, wheat) - 2 tbsp. l. grain;
- sausage - 200 q;
- kefir, fermented baked milk, milk - 250 ml;
- mashed potatoes - 100 g;
- apple - 100 q;
- legumes (peas, beans) - 5 tbsp. l. ;
- kiwi - 150 q;
- pear - 90 q;
- orange - 100 g;
- berries - 150 g;
- plum - 100 g;
- peach - 150 g;
- watermelon - 400 g;
- dried fruits (prunes, raisins, prunes) - 20 gr.
The carbohydrate saturation of a diabetic's daily diet should not exceed 17 bread units (2000 kcal).
In addition to counting saccharides, it is important for patients with pancreatic dysfunction to carefully choose foods based on prohibited and permitted substances.
Diabetic Dining Table
Available limited quantity
||Wheat, whole grains, rye, baked goods
||Puff pastry, pastry
|Meat and Poultry
||Lean types of beef, lamb, chicken, turkey, rabbit, boiled tongue, diet sausage
||Fatty pork, beef, goose, duck, canned food, sausage, pork, smoked sausage
||Borscht, cabbage soup, fish soup, soups: mushrooms, fish, beets
||noodle soups, greasy broths, traditional harcho
||Lean Fish File
||Mussels, squid, shrimp, oysters, crustaceans, fish belonging to the salmon family (trout, salmon, salmon)
||snakehead, caviar, canned in oil, herring (sprat, sprat, herring), sturgeon (stellate sturgeon, beluga, sturgeon)
|Milk, fermented milk products
||Milk, kefir, unsalted cheese 25-30%
||Homemade yogurt, milk% 0, feta cheese, cottage cheese 5%, whipped milk, baked milk
||Sour cream, cheese 50-60%, salted cheese, glazed cheese, butter, condensed milk, cream
||buckwheat, pearl barley, oatmeal, barley, millet
||semolina, brown rice, pasta
||Carrots, cabbage (all kinds), beets, squash, tomatoes, squash, eggplant, onions, turnips, radishes, mushrooms, cucumbers, fresh greens, bell peppers
||Corn, boiled potatoes, fresh legumes
||fried potatoes, fried vegetables, pickles and pickles
||Quince, lemon, cranberry, pear
||Plums, apples, peaches, oranges, cherries, blueberries, watermelons, currants, raspberries
||Grapes, figs, dates, raisins, bananas
||Sambuca, compotes, sweetening foam, fruit jelly, green cocktails with honey (1 dec. l. )
||ice cream, cakes, biscuits, cakes, jams, puddings, sweets, milk chocolate with nuts
|Sauces and spices
||mustard, pepper, horseradish, tomato juice, cinnamon, dried spices and herbs
||Ketchups, baked vegetables, purchased sauces
||Tea, cocoa, ground coffee (without sugar and cream), hips and raspberry decoction, sugar-free fruit nectars, sour berries and fruit drinks
||Natural vegetable juices (diluted)
||Sugar lemonades, kvass, sweet drinks, alcohol
||Vegetable oils (flaxseed, corn, olive sunflower), unsalted butter
||Pork, meat fats
After converting carbohydrates into bread units, it is important to determine the amount of insulin required to use blood sugar after a meal. Following this advice will help to avoid life-threatening situations - hyper and hypoglycemia.
Diet for Grade 1 Diabetes
Diet type 1 diabetes is based on strict control of blood glucose levels (3, 5… 5, 5 mmol / l).
Consider the features that allow you to keep the level of nutrition within a certain range.
- The maximum daily caloric intake of food (total per day) is 2000 kcal.
- Fractional nutrition (at least 5 times).
- Eliminate pure sucrose from the menu to lower blood glucose.
- Distribute the basic carbohydrate dose for breakfast and lunch.
- Don't eat at night.
- Avoid easily digestible carbohydrates: baked goods, honey, jams, canned food.
- Use a natural sweetener as a sweetener.
- Monitor the quality and "naturalness" of products.
- Adjust the insulin treatment schedule for meals (long-term medication is administered before meals and short-term after meals).
- Calculate the number of bread units to calculate the amount of carbohydrates consumed during the day. You should not eat more than 8 XE per meal.
In the presence of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (pancreatitis, ulcers, gastritis), the diet for diabetes mellitus prohibits the intake of the following products: acid, smoked meat, rich broth, coffee, carbonated beverages, alcohol, mushrooms, excessive secretion of enzymesstimulating canned food. affects the rate and level of carbohydrate absorption.
Licensed Type 1 Diabetes Foods:
- unleavened baked goods (lavash);
- berries, fruits (plums, cherries, lemons, apples, pears, oranges);
- soy products (tofu, milk);
- cereals (pearl barley, oatmeal, buckwheat);
- vegetarian puree soups;
- drinks (low-carbonated mineral water, berry foam, dried fruit compote);
- vegetables (onions, pumpkins, peppers, beets, carrots);
- nuts (not roasted);
- weak coffee, sugar-free green / black / fruit teas.
- rich soups, broths;
- pasta, flour products;
- sweets (cakes, pastries, sweets, chocolate, cakes);
- fast food, semi-finished products;
- alcoholic beverages (consumption of red dessert wine is strictly prohibited);
- sour, smoked, spicy foods;
- fatty meats (pork, lamb, duck), fish (mackerel).
In this diet, the daily caloric intake of an obese patient with insulin is between 1200-1400 kcal. If you don't need to get rid of the extra pounds, portions of meals can be increased.
One week diet for overweight insulin addicts
Day # 1
- breakfast - bread - 1 slice, porridge - 170 g, green tea, cheese - 40 g;
- second breakfast - pear - 0, 5 pieces, young cheese - 60 g;
- dinner - borscht - 250 g, boiled cabbage - 200 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, steamed cutlet - 100 g, lavash;
- afternoon tea - hip juice, cottage cheese - 100 g, fruit jelly - 100 g;
- dinner - cauliflower zrazy - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g;
- before bed - milk - 200 ml.
- breakfast - boiled beef - 50 g, green tea, omelet, tomato - 1 piece, bread - 1 slice;
- second breakfast - grapefruit or orange - 1 piece, pistachio - 50 g;
- dinner - chicken breast - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, pumpkin porridge - 150 g;
- afternoon tea - grapefruit - 1 piece, kefir - 200 ml. ;
- dinner - boiled fish - 100 g, boiled cabbage - 200 g;
- Bedtime - Sweet Crackers - 50g
- breakfast - lavash, weak coffee without sugar, cabbage rolls - 200 g;
- second breakfast - strawberries - 120 g, yogurt - 200 ml;
- lunch - pasta - 100 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, steamed fish - 100 g;
- afternoon tea - orange - 1 piece, dried fruit decoction;
- dinner - pear cottage cheese casserole - 250 g;
- before going to bed - kefir.
- breakfast - porridge - 200 g, green tea, cheese - 70 g boiled eggs - 1 piece;
- second breakfast - toast with cheese, turkey fillet;
- dinner - baked pumpkin with meat - 200 g, vegetarian puree soup - 150 g, bread - 2 pieces;
- afternoon tea - low-fat biscuits - 15 g, black tea without sugar;
- lunch - green beans - 200 grams, boiled chicken fillet - 150 grams, rose water;
- before bedtime - dry diet bread - 3 pcs.
- breakfast - low-fat cottage cheese (up to 5%) - 150 g, kefir - 200 ml;
- second breakfast - pumpkin seeds - 2 tablespoons, raisins - 3 tablespoons;
- lunch - baked potatoes - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, sugar-free compote - 100 g;
- afternoon snack - fruit tea without sugar, baked pumpkin - 150 g;
- dinner - vegetable salad - 200 g, steamed cutlet - 100 g or pancakes with blueberries on rye flour - 250 g;
- before going to bed - kefir% 1.
- breakfast - boiled egg - 1 piece, fruit tea, lightly salted salmon - 30 g;
- second breakfast - cottage cheese - 150 g, carrots - 1 piece;
- lunch - green borscht - 250 g, cabbage rolls with brown rice and carrots - 170 g; pide;
- Afternoon snack - kefir - 150 ml. , bread - 2 pieces;
- dinner - fresh peas - 100 g, boiled chicken fillet - 100 g, baked eggplant - 150 g;
- before bed - dry crackers - 50 gr.
- breakfast - ham - 50 g, buckwheat porridge - 200 g, green tea;
- second breakfast - tuna, cucumber, cherry tomato, rye whole grain bread - 150 g;
- dinner - zucchini with carrots - 100 g, cabbage soup - 250 g, bread - 1 slice, chicken cutlet - 50 g;
- afternoon tea - cottage cheese - 100 g, apricot or plum - 4 pieces;
- dinner - squid schnitzel with onions - 150 g, dried fruit compote;
- before bed - milk - 200 ml.
A low-carbohydrate diet for diabetes is a strictly balanced diet so that the patient can keep his blood sugar in the normal range and lose weight systematically.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet
Basics of Dietary Health Nutrition:
- Replace refined carbohydrates with sweeteners;
- BZHU ratio should be 20%: 30%: 50%;
- reduce the consumption of animal fats by 50%;
The amount of calories in the daily diet depends on the patient's energy intake and body weight.
Diabetes Diet 9 or Table 9 is a balanced program for diabetics with moderate to moderate obesity. Adhering to it, the patient's diet consists of: proteins (100 g), carbohydrates (320 g), fats (80 g), 30% of which are unsaturated triglycerides.
The type 2 diabetes diet is almost identical to the nutrition program for people who are monitoring their health:
- Divide the total amount of daily food into 5 meals: 2 snacks in 1-2XE, 3 main meals in 5-8XE;
- Don't skip breakfast;
- maximum interval between meals - 4 hours;
- last meal in the evening - 1, 5 hours before bedtime;
- Meals include vegetable salads, fruits, freshly squeezed juices, dried fruit juice, kefir, milk, green or fruit tea, sugar-free biscuits (crackers), bread.
Daily diet for type 2 diabetes
Day # 1
- breakfast - asparagus - 100 gr. , 3-4 quail eggs, scrambled eggs;
- second breakfast - walnuts, squid, apple salad - 200 g;
- dinner - baked eggplant stuffed with pomegranate, nuts - 100 g, beets - 250 g;
- afternoon tea - avocado and cocoa ice cream - 100 g;
- Meal - salmon steak with radish sauce - 200 g.
- breakfast - yogurt, oatmeal - 200 g (you can use stevia or agave nectar as a sweetener), apple - 1 piece;
- second breakfast - fruit smoothies (mix 80 g of cherries, strawberries, melons and 4 ice cubes in each mixture);
- dinner - cooked veal - 150 g, vegetable stew - 200 g;
- afternoon snack - cottage cheese and pear casserole - 150 g;
- lunch - vegetable mixture - 200 g, avocado - half of the fruit.
- breakfast - two fried eggs with low-fat cheese, basil, tomatoes;
- second breakfast - "steamed" vegetables - 100 g, hummus - 100 g;
- dinner - vegetarian puree soup - 200 g, green peas - 50 g chicken cutlet - 150 g;
- afternoon tea - pear - 1 piece, almonds - 50 g;
- Meal - salmon - 150 g, yogurt, spinach.
- breakfast - fruits cooked in agave nectar (apple, plum, cherry) - 200 g;
- second breakfast - sandwich with tuna and lettuce;
- dinner - beef steak - 150 g, boiled cauliflower - 200 g, tomato, arugula, parmesan salad - 100 g;
- afternoon tea - fruit and berry dessert (combine chopped mango, kiwi, strawberry, snow, pour orange juice and freeze) - 150 g;
- lunch - broccoli roll - 200 gr.
- breakfast - orange - 1 piece; fruit tea, low-fat cheese - 30 g, bread - 2 pieces;
- second breakfast - beet salad with nuts - 200 g;
- lunch - rice - 200 g, salmon, steamed - 150 g, grapefruit - 1 piece;
- afternoon tea - creamy berries 10% - 150 g;
- Dinner - rosehip juice, squid schnitzel with onion - 200 gr.
- breakfast - carrot and cottage cheese souffle - 200 g;
- second breakfast - cauliflower zrazy - 100 g;
- dinner - tangerine salad, chicken breast, arugula - 200 g, dried fruit compote, vegetable borscht - 200 ml;
- afternoon tea - kiwi, raspberry foam - 200 ml. ;
- dinner - steamed cod with carrots - 200 g, kefir.
- breakfast - baked apple stuffed with oat flakes, nuts, raisins - 1 piece;
- second breakfast - kohlrabi, celery, pear fruit and vegetable salad - 200 g, shrimp - 100 g;
- dinner - polenta - 200 g, herbs, boiled hake - 200 g, kiwi - 1 piece;
- afternoon tea - strawberries with mascarpone - 100 g;
- dinner - cucumber salad with onions, spinach - 250 g, green tea.
Depending on the course of the disease, changes may be made to the patient's menu.
Remember, the sample diet above is not a universal nutrition system for all diabetics, so it is important to follow it. In case of violation, "problematic" foods should be removed from the menu.
Diet for gestational diabetes
In some cases, the expectant mother develops pancreatic disorders, which result in the development of gestational diabetes. In most cases, this condition is easy to manage with proper nutrition.
Diabetic diet during pregnancy
- Eliminate sugar, confectionery, baked goods, semolina, sweet fruits and foods containing sweeteners.
- Balance the daily menu. Daily carbohydrate intake is 50%, proteins - 30%, fats - 15-20%. At the same time, Malysheva's diet for diabetes minimizes the intake of foods containing plant and animal triglycerides (5-10%).
- Follow a drinking regimen - 1. 5-2 liters of water per day.
- Enrich your daily diet with starch (cereals, rye bread, brown rice, legumes, sweet potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, radishes, beets) and fermented dairy products.
- Fresh fruit snack.
- Divide your daily meal into 3 main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) and 2 snacks (lunch, afternoon snack).
- Enrich your daily diet for pregnant women with multivitamin complexes.
- Reduce sugar with folk remedies using celery roots, linden flowers, blueberry leaves, lilac buds, bean husks.
- Limit caffeine intake. The allowable amount of alkaloids is 2 servings of coffee or tea.
The optimal amount of calories in a pregnant woman's daily diet is 2000 - 2500 kcal. At the same time, a carbohydrate-free diet is prohibited for gestational diabetes.
Recommended menu for expectant mothers with high blood glucose
- breakfast - millet porridge - 150 g, fruit tea, rye bread - 20 g;
- second breakfast - dry grain bread - 50 g, unsalted cheese 17% - 20 g, apples - 1 piece;
- lunch - buckwheat porridge - 100 g, cabbage mixture, Jerusalem artichoke, cucumber - 150 g, beef stew - 70 g;
- afternoon tea - cottage cheese 5% - 100 g, sugar-free crackers - 2 pieces, orange - 1 piece;
- dinner - boiled chicken fillet - 60 g, vegetable garnish (carrots, cabbage, peppers) - 100 g, tomato juice - 180 ml, bread - 2 pcs. ;
- 3 hours before bedtime - kefir / yogurt - 200 ml.
In addition to following a special diet, patients with gestational diabetes are offered walking (40 minutes a day) and moderate physical activity (gymnastics, water exercises).
Diet for insulin-dependent diabetes in children
During childhood and adolescence, diabetes is more difficult to carry than in adults. Genetic predisposition, stress and poor nutrition of the child are the main reasons for the development of autoimmune diseases.
In 80% of cases, children are diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes (type 1). Early diagnosis, immediate treatment and strict adherence to a special diet will help prevent the consequences of the disease.
Diabetic diet in children
- Sugar, soda, confectionery, wheat flour breads, fried foods, baked goods should be excluded from the menu.
- Enrich your daily menu with unsweetened fruits, vegetables and herbs (unlimited). Prohibited - grapes, bananas, raisins, dates, dates, figs.
- Use natural sugar substitutes.
- Divide your daily food intake into 6 meals. At the same time, it is important to eat food regularly. Permissible deviations in the child's feeding schedule are 15-20 minutes.
- Meals should be taken after 15 minutes. after insulin administration and 2 hours after injection.
- If you can't eat on time, you can eat bread, pears, nuts, cheese sandwiches or apples as a snack. Under no circumstances should you starve.
- Immediately taking a slice of chocolate will help stop hypoglycemic attacks. Therefore, an adult accompanying a child should always have a sweet product.
- Enrich your child's daily diet with fermented dairy products.
- Calculate your daily fructose intake. The amount of sugar substitute directly depends on the age of the child and the nature of the disease.
To lower blood glucose, it is recommended that a child eat blueberries, nettles, corn stalks, mint leaves, barberry twigs, bean husks, Jerusalem artichokes, ginseng and eleutherococcus.
Thus, diet plays an important role for diabetics, because the well-being and life of the patient depends on the accuracy of its composition. Therefore, it is important to take the diet and adherence to it very seriously and carefully, otherwise negligence can lead to tragic consequences.